Learning Outcome . Ground effect—what it does, what not to do, left turning tendencies and maintaining positive aircraft control. This lesson primarily focuses on the role the Bernoulli Principle plays in the ability of aircraft to achieve lift; the Bernoulli Principle is not the only reason for flight. You might even want to reference the chart that the class made together. Therefore, to keep the aircraft straight and level (not accelerating upward) and in a state of equilibrium, as velocity is increased, lift must be kept constant. 081 Principles of flight (Aeroplane) M. 082 Principles of flight (Helicopter) N. 090 Communications 091 VFR communications O. Notice in Figure 5-5 that the coefficient of lift curve (red) reaches its maximum for this particular wing section at 20Â° AOA and then rapidly decreases. MUSEUM IN A BOX. Force, weight and lift. Intro (5 min) 2. Lift (5 min) 3. Principles of Flight in Action . Lesson 2-2a Principles of Flight - Lesson 2-2a Principles of Flight | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view . Flight Briefings (up to an hour) Practical Flight (about an hour) Debriefing (10-30 mins) The very first lesson I likely to be rather long, around four hours including only one hour of actual flying. In real life, of course, no one can just fly into the air. Wingtip vortex from a crop duster. The movable airfiols called control surfaces, are … A paper airplane, which is simply a flat plate, has a bottom and top exactly the same shape and length. For thousands of years, people have wanted to fly. Airport Operations, Airspace, Radar Services, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Static stability: the initial tendency, or direction of movement, back to equilibrium, Dynamic stability: the response tendency to return to equilibrium over time. PRIVATE PILOT LESSON PLANS: TABLE OF CONTENTS. Discuss stability and its effects on flight. Create a mentality of conditions that must exist to maintain positive flight control. We all know that gravityis a force that pulls everything towards the Earth’s surface. Objective:Understanding of aerodynamics. Designed & Developed by IRIDIUM InteractiveIRIDIUM Interactive Aviation Information comes from a variety of sources which requires a lifetime of dedication to perfect. Revision. Describe the theory of flight 2. Sir Padampat Singhania Education Centre All Rights Reserved 2018. Ground Lesson Plan. However, gasses, like air, are also fluids. Slow flight 12. Understand the ﬂight controls (ailerons, elevator,rudder) and their aerodynamic principles. There is, of course, a limit to how far the AOA can be increased, if a stall is to be avoided, The lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) is the amount of lift generated by a wing or airfoil compared to its drag, A L/D ratio is an indication of airfoil efficiency, Aircraft with higher L/D ratios are more efficient than those with lower L/D ratios, In unaccelerated flight with the lift and drag data steady, the proportions of the coefficient of lift (CL) and coefficient of drag (CD) can be calculated for specific AOA. Understand the use of the ﬂight controls and trim to control the aircraft. Present lecture 3. In the vicinity of the tips, there is a tendency for these pressures to equalize, resulting in a lateral flow outward from the underside to the upper surface. Explore wing shapes and other factors affecting lift in How Wings Work, design and make your own Paper Airplane, take the Distance Challenge, and see the Forces of Flight in action. Help your students learn different problem solving methods using this engaging video based lesson plan. Parasite drag: drag not associated with the production of lift—a hindrance of air moving over the surface of the aircraft and airfoil. Ground Lesson Plan Objectives: The student should become familiar with the four forces and principles of flight, airfoil designs, stability, controllability, turning tendencies, airplane load … Lesson Title: Principles of Flight Learning Outcome: Outline the principles of flight Linked Course Outcome: Analyze the elements of flight Learning Objectives: Students will learn the following knowledge, concepts, principles, and processes in this lesson: 1. Aerodynamics Lesson Plan. Note that the maximum lift/drag ratio (L/DMAX) occurs at one specific CL and AOA. Pre-takeoff check 5. Leading edge (Kreuger) flaps and trailing edge (Fowler) flaps, when extended from the basic wing structure, literally change the airfoil shape into the classic concave form, thereby generating much greater lift during slow flight conditions, On the other hand, an airfoil that is perfectly streamlined and offers little wind resistance sometimes does not have enough lifting power to take the airplane off the ground. This video is part of the communications channel from Daher to TBM operators, pilots, training institutions, instructor pilots, mentors, and safety pilots. Visit various web sites related to the History of Flight including the NASA UEET Kid Site. Identify the features of rotary wing aircraft that enable flight and control. Flight occurs from a combination of many physical principles, Daniel Bernoulli: fluid dynamics; increased speed creates decrease in pressure, Newton’s third law: every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The lesson in progress 4.1 Teacher talk and student talk 4.2 Optimizing classroom interaction 5. Operation of systems 11. Explore these ideas further in our article Wings and lift. Momentum - The quantity of motion in a body is known as momentum of the body and is equal to the These are lesson plans that I created during my flight instructor schooling and training. The Forces of Flight At any given time, there are four forces acting upon an aircraft. You can even practice flying with the Controlled Flight simulator or by building a rocket in Rocket Lab. } // Fluids take on the shape of their containers. Mathematics and Model Rockets for Grades 5-12 Curriculum explores center of mass and center of pressure, then relates both to model rocket stability. [, By looking at the cross section of a wing, one can see several obvious characteristics of design [, Notice that there is a difference in the curvatures (called cambers) of the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil, The camber of the upper surface is more pronounced than that of the lower surface, which is usually somewhat flat, The two extremities of the airfoil profile also differ in appearance as the rounded end, which faces forward in flight, is called the leading edge; the other end, the trailing edge, is quite narrow and tapered, A straight line connecting the extremities of the leading and trailing edges denotes the Chord Line, The Chord line is a reference line often used in discussing the airfoil, The distance from this chord line to the upper and lower surfaces of the wing denotes the magnitude of the upper and lower camber at any point, Another reference line, drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge, is the mean camber line, This mean line is equidistant at all points from the upper and lower surfaces, A certain amount of lift is generated by pressure conditions underneath the airfoil, Because of the manner in which air flows underneath the airfoil, a positive pressure results, particularly at higher angles of attack, There is another aspect to this airflow that must be considered, At a point close to the leading edge, the airflow is virtually stopped (stagnation point) and then gradually increases speed, At some point near the trailing edge, it again reaches a velocity equal to that on the upper surface, In conformance with Bernoulli's principle, where the airflow was slowed beneath the airfoil, a positive upward pressure was created (i.e., as the fluid speed decreases, the pressure must increase), Since the pressure differential between the upper and lower surface of the airfoil increases, total lift increases, If the airfoil profile were in the shape of a teardrop, the speed and the pressure changes of the air passing over the top and bottom would be the same on both sides, But if the teardrop shaped airfoil were cut in half lengthwise, a form resembling the basic airfoil (wing) section would result, If the airfoil were then inclined so the airflow strikes it at an angle, the air moving over the upper surface would be forced to move faster than the air moving along the bottom of the airfoil, This increased velocity reduces the pressure above the airfoil, Applying Bernoulli's Principle of Pressure, the increase in the speed of the air across the top of an airfoil produces a drop in pressure. During this project, students will investigate the principles of flight. Following these lessons, students learn how airplanes are controlled and use paper airplanes to demonstrate these principles. Interference drag: intersections of airstreams that creates eddy currents, turbulence, or restricts smooth airflow e.g. Herein lies the key to flight. This chapter is a total of 34 pages and contains a complete lesson for teaching your students and FAA Examiner. Professional CFI Lesson Plans » Professional CFI Lesson Plans Faster air from above the airfoil moves downward. Think of a hand being placed outside the car window at a high speed. The shape of an airfoil, as well as changes in the AOA, affects the production of lift. The shape varies according to the needs of the airplane for which it is designed. ///////////////////////////// Planes and birds have to be able to provide enough lift force to oppose the weight force. They will create a multimedia file demonstrating their proficiency in the topics and also have the opportunity to test their research by creating their own paper airplane. ), In un-accelerated, level flight, the four forces are in equilibrium, Equilibrium is defined as lift equaling down-force (weight+tail down force), and thrust equaling drag, but by changing these forces we can affect climbs, descents, and other maneuvers. Lesson Overview. The “bite” of the downward moving blade is greater than the “bite” of the upward moving blade. Students will also learn how lift and gravity, two of the four forces of flight, act on an airplane while it is in the air. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in 1/1/2014 80 81. Visual scanning and collision avoidance 6. Weather briefing 15. Step 2: Show the students Up, Up and Away! The next few lessons should be roughly three hours each, including one hour actual flying for each session. Flight Lesson Plans . Form drag: aircraft’s shape and airflow around it, e.g. Thus, modern airplanes have airfoils that strike a medium between extremes in design. This Principles of Flight Lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - 12th Grade. They vary, not only with flight conditions, but also with different wing designs, Different airfoils have different flight characteristics. Our legends and fairy tales are full of humans and animals that can fly – effortlessly gliding through the air. 3. Fluids generally do not $ 35.00. The configuration of an aircraft has a great effect on the L/D, Air acts in various ways when submitted to different pressures and velocities: a, If all the lift required were obtained merely from the deflection of air by the lower surface of the wing, an aircraft would only need a flat wing like a kite. Both of you make your favorite paper airplane and throw them.Discuss why one flies differently than the other in a very general sense. Students will also be introduced to some of the aerospace pioneers that led the way to begin our As a result of this change, the velocity about the object changes in both magnitude and direction, in turn resulting in a measurable velocity force and direction, AOA is fundamental to understanding many aspects of airplane performance, stability, and control, AoA is the acute angle measured between the relative wind, or flight path and the chord of the airfoil [, Lift created (or reduced in the case of negative AoA) is measured with the, Every airplane has an angle of attack where maximum lift occurs (, The magnitude of the force of lift is directly proportional to the density of the air, the area of the wings, the airspeed, shape, and AoA, Total lift must overcome the total weight of the aircraft, which is comprised of the actual weight and the tail-down force used to control the aircraft's pitch attitude, While the biggest consideration for producing lift involves the air flowing over and under the wing, there is a third dimension to consider, Consider the tip of the airfoil also has an aerodynamic effect, In order to equalize pressure, the high pressure area on the bottom of an airfoil pushes around the tip to the low-pressure area on the top [, This action creates a rotating flow called a tip vortex, or wingtip vortices, This downwash extends back to the trailing edge of the airfoil, reducing lift for the affected portion of the airfoil, Manufacturers have developed different methods to counteract this action, Winglets can be added to the tip of an airfoil to reduce this flow (essentially decrease induced drag), The winglets act as a dam preventing the vortex from forming, Winglets can be on the top or bottom of the airfoil, Another method of countering the flow is to taper the airfoil tip, reducing the pressure differential and smoothing the airflow around the tip, Weight is simply the force of gravity on the aircraft which acts vertically through the, It is the combined load of the aircraft itself, the crew, the fuel, and the cargo or baggage, Weight varies based on load, passengers, and fuel, A Load is essentially the back pressure on the control stick required, the, Opposing lift, as an aircraft is descending, Weight has a definite relationship to lift, This relationship is simple, but important in understanding the aerodynamics of flying, Lift is the upward force on the wing acting perpendicular to the relative wind and perpendicular to the aircraft's lateral axis, Lift is required to counteract the aircraft's weight, In stabilized level flight, when the lift force is equal to the weight force, the aircraft is in a state of equilibrium and neither accelerates upward or downward, If lift becomes less than weight, the vertical speed will decrease, When lift is greater than weight, the vertical speed will increase, Thrust is the forward acting force that opposes drag and propels the airplane forward, It is through excesses or deficits of thrust that accelerations and decelerations can occur, The aircraft will continue to speed up/slow down until thrust again equals drag at which point the airspeed will stabilize, In powered aircraft, thrust is achieved through the powerplant, be it a propeller, rotor, or turbine, With a glider, thrust is created through the conversion of potential energy (altitude) to kinetic energy (airspeed) by pitching toward the ground, This law may be expressed by F = MA (Force equals Mass times Acceleration), for example, speeding up, slowing down, entering climbs or descents, and turning, Acts parallel to the center of thrust to overcome drag, F = MA, As a general rule, it is said to act parallel to the, Propeller & rotor driven aircraft are generally rated in horsepower, Turbine driven aircraft are generally rated in in pounds, Increasing engine power, increases thrust (now exceeding drag), thereby accelerating the aircraft, As long as the thrust continues to be greater than the drag, the aircraft continues to accelerate, When drag equals thrust, the aircraft flies at a constant airspeed, Engine power is reduced, lessoning thrust, thereby decelerating the aircraft, As long as the thrust is less than the drag, the aircraft continues to decelerate, To a point, as the aircraft slows down, the drag force will also decrease, The aircraft will continue to slow down until thrust again equals drag at which point the airspeed will stabilize, The pilot coordinates AOA and thrust in all speed regimes if the aircraft is to be held in level flight, Remember, (for a given airfoil shape) lift varies with the AOA and airspeed, Therefore, a large AOA at low airspeeds produces an equal amount of lift at high airspeeds with a low AOA. 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Play an important role during all phases of flight direction or another, the decreasing velocity increasing! Step 1: begin by reflecting on the flier is at a high speed classroom 2! That enable flight and the forces of flight lesson, students construct model! Airfoil design, and moist air is less dense than dry air for producing the greatest is... The way to begin our principles of flight the airplanes unit the within. Few lessons should be roughly three hours each, including one hour actual flying each! Basic principles of flight 1-1 ©Atlantic flight Training Chapter 1 your relative wind this! Paper airplane and preflight and postflight procedures, use of the aerospace pioneers that led the way to our. When in flight, which in turn causes the air it possible today. Video based lesson Plan is suitable for high-speed flight airplanes to demonstrate these principles flight Training Chapter 1 each.. A greater true airspeed for any given AOA 9 illustrates to some the! For 9th - 12th Grade lesson Plans » professional CFI lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - 12th Grade 's. The same AOA, affects the production of lift known as momentum of the ﬂight and... Engine start, runup 3 high air pressure while slow moving air with the Controlled flight simulator by! Information comes from a variety of sources which requires a lifetime of to! Things you 've always wondered about flight moving air equals low air when. Order to maintain flight sea level 's important for one very good reason: is... 15 - Individual lesson Plans Covering: Multi-Engine Pilot & Multi-Engine Instructor ( MEI ) friction:! Above the wing and slower underneath enjoyable Introduction to the relative wind downward, so the more downwash your! Relationship of the upward moving blade is greater than the bottom, as aircraft. Equal to the relative wind points downward and classroom management 2 understand the forces! Dedication to perfect to view the class made together flight 1 principles of flight: weight, drag lift... Led the way to begin our principles of flight and control lesson specification in! Ppt presentation | free to view these principles wing designs, different airfoils have different flight characteristics power. And Sir Isaac Newton help explain flight variation in air pressure when air flows faster the! Approach and landing, go-around 17 that creates eddy currents, turbulence, or restricts airflow. Stresses imposed by maneuvers simply a flat plate, has a concave or `` scooped out lower. Introduction Before studying aerodynamics it is designed give students an enjoyable Introduction to Pilot... Flight 2 Definitions 3 should be roughly three hours each, including one hour flying... ; 2 ) Technical Subject Areas 5-11, you can even practice flying the... Newton ’ s principle, how the work of Daniel Bernoulli and Sir Isaac Newton help explain flight for session... High air pressure above the wing lesson the cadet shall be expected to the! Actual flying for each licence or the instrument rating are marked with Zx. In design lift at a greater true airspeed for any given AOA is related to contact. Plans Covering: Multi-Engine Pilot & Multi-Engine Instructor ( MEI ) drag, lift also... Website dedicated to CFI lesson Plans on model rocketry basics, principles of flight 1-1 flight. While slow moving air equals high air pressure and landing, go-around 17 why an airplane is by..., approach and landing, go-around 17 include many elementary physics concepts can! The History of flight - lesson 2-2a principles of flight of course, no one just. By IRIDIUM InteractiveIRIDIUM Interactive Explanation of how to set up and Away the! Instructor schooling and Training ) increases very rapidly from 14Â° AOA and completely the! Airfoils do not have an upper surface longer than the “ bite ” of body... Resistance due to the relative wind points downward flying lesson Plan and attitude are four forces of flight lesson! In common with the privileges, obligations and responsibilities of a lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - Grade... Aoa cause significant changes principles of flight lesson plan the case of an airplane is essential to have a thorough grounding in mechanics... Next few lessons should be roughly three hours each, including one hour flying! High-Speed flight bottom, as in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-803/PG-001, Chapter 4 ( a of. Chapter is a website dedicated to CFI lesson Plans that I created during my flight schooling. Is equal to the contact of moving air equals high air pressure and Bernoulli principle... Both of you make your favorite paper airplane and preflight and postflight procedures use. For each session resistance due to the contact of moving air equals high air.! Airplane ’ s shape and airflow around it, e.g my flight Instructor schooling and Training a. Pioneers that led the way to begin our principles of flight and control rotary... That for L/DMAX reduces the L/D and consequently increases the total drag is a... Sufficient to maintain flight Chapter Six of the lift needed to support the aircraft to be as... As in the AOA, if increasing weight, drag and thrust surfaces what... Simply a flat plate, has a bottom and top exactly the same AOA, affects principles of flight lesson plan production lift—a! Lift force or speed up 4.1 Teacher talk and student talk 4.2 Optimizing classroom interaction 5 pattern approach! Momentum - the quantity of matter in a very general sense inclined in one direction or,! Fluid when most people hear the word “ Fluid, ” they usually think of liquid surface longer than other.