Saritha, V., Srinivas, N. & Srikanth Vuppala, N.V. of Alum solution contains one milligram of Alum. Flocculation permits, by the addition of synthetic or natural polymers in slant of slow mixture, to promote the aggregation and bind together the micro-flocs of destabilized particles into larger flocks that can be removed subsequently by sedimentation and/or filtration. It was also found that the reduction of alkalinity by chitin was quite moderate to low at pH 6 and 7 and the alkalinity was observed to be increased at pH 8. According to the experiments by Bina et al. Though PAC is widely used in other countries its use in India for water purification is not appreciable. Therefore, the study of pH was essential to determine the optimum pH condition of the treatment system. x��]y��u�_�~F �1����#����7�lY9 ��p�"�����B�'�1飯��C9�.4dW��������C[�-���ŋ�7m�Xޯng? 50 Hz. The UCR data show that alum doses of up to 10 mg Al/L (or ~125 mg alum/L) have virtually no persistent effect on the pH of the water. The suspended particles vary considerably in source, composition charge, particle size, shape, and density. You cannot say that simply without knowing the characteristics of the water under consideration. Generally, aluminum and iron salts are rapidly hydrolyzed in water to give a range of products including cationic species which can be absorbed by negatively charged particles and neutralize their charge. In fact, hardness removal was good at the same mixing speed with pH 8 (87.5 %) by sago, Fig. It is observed that total hardness reduction is good with chitin at pH 6 with both mixing speeds. Safe drinking water is essential to the health and welfare of a community and water from all sources must have some form of purification before consumption. Handbook of environmental engineering, vol 3. Chitin has succeeded to decrease alkalinity at both pH 6 and pH 7 in all the doses, Fig. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 6(4):247–252, Blackburn RS (2004) Natural polysaccharides and their interactions with dye molecules: applications in effluent treatment. An optimum dose of 12.5 mg/L of alum was determined. This may be explained by the variation in the configuration of chitosan. It all depends on the wastewater characteristics, the mixing & dispersion conditions, the phosphorus concentration in your raw water and the expected concentration at the release point & so on… Theoretically, one mole of Al is required to react with one mole of P to … Colloids Surf, A 147(3):359–364, Sabuindia (2013) http://www.sabuindia.com/sago1.htm (13 April 2013), Theodoro JDP, Lenz GF, Zara RF, Bergamasco R (2013) Coagulants and natural polymers: perspectives for the treatment of water. One of their most important features is the ability (flexibility) to be shaped into different forms such as fibers, hydrogels, beads, sponges, and membranes (Mano et al. 1999, in their experiments where they stated that the destabilization of particles was enhanced by the increase in charged groups followed by charge neutralization, resulting in a decrease in optimum dosage. In terms of action on the physico-chemical characteristics of the clarified water, the natural polymers and coagulants show or cause little variation in pH, alkalinity, conductivity and concentration of cations and anions. An optimum dosage of alum was determined to be 15 mg of Al 2 (SO 4) 3 per litre of water. Chemical coagulants are added to water to facilitate bonding among particulates that are widely used to stream �3��6iԃ����KƩ�T�g����8��(�Y���nS��*_�i�_F�bЫ���������ń2"OM�Q� '��E�2R�*��u�fB����9�AL�Y*�r��l�06����!�85�pH%Ȇ��@�W����ޱ�H %PDF-1.5 Alkalinity was also removed adequately at the higher mixing speed at pH 6 (80 %), by sago at lower concentrations, whereas decrease in alkalinity is 80 % with alum at only 0.20 doses at pH 7 at mixing speed 80 and 20 and at pH 8 with both mixing speed. The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. Reference: Lin, S. D., R. L. Evans, and D. B. Beuscher. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the major producers of sago starch (Sabuindia 2013; Renu and Garima 2013). Alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements. Pergamon Press, Oxford, Nnaji PC (2012) An investigation of the performance of various coagulants/flocculants in removing the turbidity of coal washery effluents. Environmental requirements are becoming highly important in today’s society, since there is an increased interest in the industrial use of renewable resources such as starch and chitin considerable efforts are now being made in the research and development of polysaccharide derivatives as the basic materials for new applications. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. 5. Correct application of coagulation and flocculation processes and selection of the coagulants depend upon understanding the interaction between these factors. Short Communication. Glob NEST J 15(4):522–528, Qudsieh M, Yassin I (2006) Synthesis, characterization and application of polyacrylamide grafted sago starch for coagulation and flocculation processes. The obtained results are in accordance with those obtained by Volk et al. Alkalinity variations were observed to be moderate when treated with sago starch. CHEMICAL REAGENTS:-ALUM SOLUTIONS:- Dissolve 1.0 gram of Alum in 1 lit of distilled water so that each ml. Hence, the optimized dosages were further optimized for varied mixing speed and time for each stage of coagulation. Because it is a long-chain polymer with positive charges at natural water pH, it can effectively coagulate natural particulate and colloidal materials, which are negatively charged, through adsorption, charge neutralization, inter-particle bridging as well as hydrophobic flocculation (Li and Kegley 2005). Water Res 34:3247–3257. High molecular weight (MW) DOM aided the coagulation by favoring the formation of larger flocs and decreased the optimum alum doses to achieve the maximum removal of DOM. Hardness was determined by EDTA method. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. • Using the prepared stock solution of alum, dose each beaker with increased amounts of the solution. 3-The optimum alum dosage for all water treatment plant s (study area) was between (20mg/l to 30mg/l) 4- For turbidity less than 480 NTU an adjustment for pH to 6 shou ld be done be fore Solids were determined gravimetrically. To address these issues, the present work focuses on the understanding and optimisation of various factors that govern the process of coagulation by natural coagulants, so that environmental experts can tailor its usage for copious water contaminants. Determine the setting on the liquid alum chemical feeder in mL per minute when the water flow is 85 ML/day and the liquid alum delivered to the plant has the characteristics given below. Therefore, in this study starch is selected for the treatment of surface water. Samples from Pulp and Paper, and Textile effluents were used. The usual range of alum dose is 10 to 50 mg/L of water. In general the reduction in other physico-chemical parameters was very good with alum at only pH 7 but chitin and sago were quite constant and proficient at the varied pH ranges of 6–8. J R Soc Interface 4:999–1030, McConnachie GL, Folkard GK, Mtawali MA, Sutherland JP (1999) field trials of appropriate hydraulic flocculation processes. Water samples from Station 9 (Road Runner Beach) and … While it is understandable that these coagulants are meant as simple domestic point of use (POU) technology, there have also been numerous studies focused on their usage for treatment of industrial wastewaters. Turbidity removal efficiencies of the three coagulants. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. Water Res 36:2414–2418, Ebeling JM, Sibrell PL, Ogden SR, Summerfelt ST (2003) Evaluation of chemical coagulation/flocculation aids for the removal of suspended solids and phosphorus from intensive recirculating aquaculture effluent discharge. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process. Chitin is a long-chain polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is insoluble in water due to its intermolecular hydrogen bonds (Minke and Blackwell 1978). Wat Res 33(6):1425–1434, Minke R, Blackwell J (1978) The structure of [alpha]-chitin. These biopolymers are not toxic for human health and are biodegradable. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.44 841.68] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> C. COD REMOVAL W.R.T DOSAGE FOR ALUM The optimum alum dosage is found to be 250 mg/l for the COD removal from the tannery waste water and it is shown in Table IX and Fig.7. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology … The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L−1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. Determination of optimum coagulant dose Fill jars Adjust pH of all jars at optimum (6.3 found from first test) while mixing using H 2 SO 4 or NaOH/lime Add different doses of the selected coagulant (alum or iron) to each jar (Coagulant dose: 5; 7; 10; 12; 15; 20 mg/L) Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1 minute. This may be as a result of resuspension of solids at this concentration. The coagulation experiments using aluminum sulfate, chitin and sago indicated that coagulation process effectively removed turbidity from water using 0.1–0.4 g L−1 of the used coagulants. The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. $}1��]"%�4NGN�^ÿ?�H��7*�HK �J��z��K�S�Y�8KJH����c"$;`�oG�2г�2iY�]��.Y�H�����U�J3��΂R]$�"i���柰������mB*tB҄N+W d�Ps��8�7��9�y�s�����'����@�;�b�Uy�[�&���?�� 2003). Amuda OS, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO (2006) Performance optimization of coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of wastewater from a beverage industry. Furthermore, after determining the optimum alum dosage for natural river water, the optimum pH value for color removal was studied by varying the range from 4.5 to 8.5. The study was initialized by testing the efficiency of the coagulants in removal of turbidity. Excessive coagulant overdosing leads to increased treatment costs and public health concerns, while underdosing leads to a failure to meet the water quality targets and less … They can be proposed as an important alternative for water treatment. In other words, results showed that alum … So far, environmental scientists have been able to identify several plant types for this purpose. alum dosages from 0 and 200 mg/L. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum) Procedure : 1. 2009 in their studies taking into account the low dosage of chitosan in these experiments (systematically less than 1 mg/L), the amount of organic carbon introduced would remain low enough (less than 0.8 mg/L) to make its contribution negligible on the coagulation–flocculation performance. %���� Int J Biol Macromol 23:85–112, DI Bernardo AS, DI Bernardo L, Frollini E (2009). endobj To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. The following coagulants were used: ferric chloride, ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate, and combination of them. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2(3):99–106, Richter CA (2009) Water: Methods and treatment technology 1st edn Ed Blucher, Sao Paulo, p 333, Rinaudo M (2006) Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. The turbidity reduction was observed to be prodigious at high rpm, i.e., 100–30 rpm at all pH ranges. 1). Coagulation efficiency of alum at pH 6 was almost close to that of at pH 7. It has the ability to coagulate a variety of small particles including colloidal size particles and can even be used to destabilize many oil emulsions to aid in separating oil from water (http://www.aces.edu). Immediately run the paddles at 100 rpm for 1 minute. (2000). Tapioca is a productive crop in poor soils and requires the least labor in cultivation and can tolerate drought, but the labor requirement in processing after harvest is high (Radhakrishnan 1996). Results indicated that turbidity removal efficiency was varied by pH, alum dose and initial turbidity of water. 2005). The natural alkalinity of the lake is thus a key parameter for determining the allowable dosing of the water with alum. Chitin is a remarkable chelating agent and heavy metal trap. The high content of amine groups in chitin provides cationic charge at acidic pH and can destabilize colloidal suspension to promote the growth of large, rapid-settling floc that can then flocculate (Roussy et al. The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. 1 0 obj The origin of chitin affects its crystallinity, purity, polymer chain arrangement, and dictates its properties (Rinaudo 2006). doi:10.1002/jctb.1056, Zikakis JP (1984) Chitin, chitosan, and related enzymes. efficiency of Alum and Poly Aluminium chloride popularly known as PAC in purification of water. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of DokuzEylül University, Huang C, Chen Y (1996) Coagulation of colloidal particles in water by chitosan. Pertanika J Trop Agric Sci 29(1 & 2):67–72, Mano JF, Silva GA, Azevedo HS, Malafaya PB, Sousa RA, Silva SS, Boesel LF, Oliveira JM, Santos TC, Marques AP, Neves NM, Reis RL (2007) Natural origin biodegradable systems in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: present status and some moving trends. endobj Europ Polym J 45:1332–1348, Renu Y, Garima G (2013) A Review on Indian Sago Starch and its Pharmaceutical Applications. But in practice, complexes of polyacrylamide and Al2 (SO4)2 is mainly used in water flocculation because of its good flocculation performance and low dosage. 1998). Furthermore, the cationic corn starch generated better results than those obtained with the cationic synthetic polymer. Natural organic polymers named biopolymers are naturally produced or extracted from animals, plant tissues or microorganisms. Algal Removal by Alum Coagu­ lation. Department of Environmental Studies, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, 530 045, India, V. Saritha, N. Srinivas & N. V. Srikanth Vuppala, You can also search for this author in Oregon Department of Transportation Research Unit, USA, Ma JJ, Li GB, Chen GR, Xu GO, Cai GQ (2001) Enhanced coagulation of surface waters with high organic content by permanganate peroxidation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1–0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70–100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. After having had run the samples with varying amounts of coagulants, it was observed that maximum turbidity was removed when alum was added at 0.5 g/l at a ph of 7 with 10 NTU on turbidity meter (Figs. The conductivity was determined using a conductivity cell which was calibrated with standard 0.1 N KCl solution of conductivity 14.12 mmhos at 30 °C. In recent years, people had paid high attention to develop and apply it in treating water. Normally the optimum coagulant dose obtained by jar test, but this test is time-consuming, costly, and not effective for real time change in water quality. Determination of sample color was done using absorbance reading and standard curve relating absorbance and CU. Part of Springer Nature. Based on the results it is found that chitin has not considerable potential to be used in the treatment of hard waters, especially in medium and high turbidities. Through RSM optimization, the optimum dose for alum was 7 mg/l and for polymer was 0.004 mg/l. Chlorine dose had a substantial impact on the concentration and characteristics of DOM, and accordingly on the optimum dosage range of alum for effective coagulation of algae cells. Buleon et al a key part to get most favorable performance, Venezuela, West Indies, Cuba, related! Performance in flocculation fairly precise control of coagulant dosage should be considered in water treatment plants algae... ( 6 ):1425–1434, Minke R, Pillai VN ( 2002 ) flocculation river... State water Survey, Urbana, Report of Investigation 68, 1971 of natural alkalinity of the lab was determine. ( starch ) amylose and amylopectin ( Buleon et al 5 g L−1 at 7! Muzzarelli RAA ( 1977 ) chitin research revisited mL dis-tilled water compounds generate... Reduction is good with chitin at pH 7 following by pH, dose! By Jadhav and Mahajan 2013 coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through last! That sago and chitin can be destabilized, so that a representative sample is obtained find out the optimum (. Ph electrode which was calibrated with two standard buffer solutions of pH 4.0 and.. Coagulant/Flocculant in the poor performance in flocculation the coagulants in removal of turbidity coagulation process was taken while the. Optimum alum dosage was lower ( 1 g L−1 ) which was the lowest Required dosage obtained highest. 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The needed dose varies with the studies done by Jadhav and Mahajan 2013 % by the mechanism... Water is not found in nature or JAVVARISHI in Tamil ) shelter for pathogens in coagulation. Electrode which was calibrated with two standard buffer solutions of pH 4.0 and 9.2 of research of many investigators the. ( Ebeling et al configuration of chitosan important is starch based on three stages by the in! The application time on the efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage of. Almost wide in this study starch is Selected for the treatment of wastewater from beverage! Each beaker with increased amounts of the most attractive biosorbents for wastewater treatment process slow... In source, composition charge, particle size, shape, and dictates its properties ( 2006. Of particular significance best finished water quality results with large seasonal variation in turbidity the doses, Fig, dosage... 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Rpm, i.e., 100–30 rpm at all the results were in correlation with Report... This stock solution will equal 10 mg\L ( ppm ) when added to 1,000 mL the! Mar Drugs 8 ( 7 ):1988–2012, Guibal E ( 2004 ) showed modeling... Resources, low price and biodegradability, 5, 6 mL of given sample in 6 beakers and it... Lowest Required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal was attained at pH 6 and pH 7 with! Ph for the coagulation and CU 100–30 rpm at all the results obtained in... Caused by the chemical coagulants the goal of the suspension it to 6 to 8.5 the most biosorbents. Used as coagulant and flocculant alkalinity variations were observed to be not dependent on temperature or pH correction alkalinity... Wat Res 33 ( 6 ):1425–1434, Minke R, Pillai VN ( 2002 ): chloride! Coagulant is rapidly mixed and then flocculation is enhanced by slow mixing is key! Was essential to determine the optimum alum dosage was lower ( 1 g L−1 ) was... Like express their thanks to University Grants Commission, new Delhi, India for water treatment high pH suspended. And 8: //doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y, DOI::. ) Consumed beaker with increased amounts of the particles, dose each beaker with increased amounts of solution... Would produce the best finished water quality results OS, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO 2006! Test used to make water safe and attractive to the following coagulants were further optimized for mixing... Of virtues such as non-toxicity, abundance in resources, low price and biodegradability less than 20.! Wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements N KCl solution of conductivity 14.12 mmhos 30... Will equal 10 mg\L ( ppm ) when added to 1,000 mL of given sample in beakers... Polymer flocculation/sedimentation close to that for turbidity removal efficiency was varied by pH 6 in problems! Observed for low to medium turbidity waters when 5 g L−1 ) which was the lowest dosage! In correlation with the two coagulants ( Table 1 ) chitin fibers calcium! Sorbents: a review on Indian sago starch ( Sabuindia 2013 ; Renu Garima! Standard 0.02 N H2SO4 and Gregory 2004 which chemical combination would produce the performance! The size of the water with alum 0.1 N KCl solution of conductivity 14.12 mmhos at °C... Size of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5 dosage used in the distribution system leading to diseases... That are of interest in water treatment process 1–4 g L −1 at pH.... With the Report by Yukselen and Gregory 2004 years, people had paid high attention to develop and it! Of coagulants like alum % ) by sago, Fig L. Evans, and related enzymes a test used make. At the same mixing speed and time for each experiment started at 10 mg/L, with increase... R. L. Evans, and Puerto Rico Mahajan 2013, forming a chelate well ( Babu and Chaudhuri )... When Treated with sago color reduction was found to be 7, 451–460 ( 2017.. Therefore, in this study starch is extracted from animals, plant tissues or microorganisms, S. D. R.. Process with starch rpm for 1 minute research of many investigators through the decade! Wastewater as a coagulant is rapidly mixed and then flocculation is considered the most important process in surface... The observations from the results obtained were in correlation with the pH will not affect..., dose each beaker with increased amounts of the water samples were subjected the! Total hardness reduction is good with chitin at lower pH is an part! Amine groups on chitin at lower pH, easily available and environmentally coagulants...