projection level = 1.5(window height)+ 0.7m = 1.7m. – Azimuth: a trend direction as indicated by an angle 0-360 degrees with North at 0 (or 360), East at 90, South at 180, and West at 270. © 2020 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Notice now that the 3D pattern shown in Figure 5a looks like a flatter "bagel" with a little "bowl" stuck to the top and bottom. Remember that they don't really have to be oriented in any particular way when you know what the antenna is supposed to do. However, there can be some confusion surrounding the language used to specify antennas as well as the basic function of each type of antenna. These lines are drawn where the gain is down from the peak by 3-dB. For example, some people like directional antenna patterns to always point up while others like them to point to the right or left because that's the way the antenna will often be deployed. This paper covered basic antenna definitions and explained terms frequently encountered in examining antenna patterns. Higher gain commonly implies a narrower beamwidth and that is, indeed, the case with patch arrays. Gain and beamwidth definitions were made and pattern parameters such as front-to-back ratio and side lobe levels were discussed. Of course, if the patterns are given in normalized form, the peak gain must be given to determine absolute levels of any of the pattern parameters. A 4x4 Patch Array Antenna with 3D Radiation Pattern, Azimuth Plane Pattern and Elevation Plane Pattern, Figure 9. Azimuth definition, the arc of the horizon measured clockwise from the south point, in astronomy, or from the north point, in navigation, to the point where a vertical circle through a given heavenly body intersects the horizon. Along the way, the basic function of several common antennas was covered. Given these antenna patterns, you can see that a dipole antenna should be mounted so that it is vertically oriented with respect to the floor or ground. Alternatively, azimuth could be determined from retinal-image information alone. When the nulls are filled in, the distribution of energy to the various antenna elements in the array is changed so that more energy is radiated "below" the antenna. Figure 12 shows the patterns from a sector antenna, including a few images of the 3D pattern. Various Antennas Commonly Found in WLAN Systems, Figure 2. It is important to mention that it doesn't really matter in which direction the patterns are shown. Many circular patches are linearly polarized and many rectangular patches are circularly polarized. Assume that the sector antenna is mechanically tilted down by 5 degrees. In these cases, both the azimuth plane and elevation plane patterns become important. This is a video recording of Lecture 4 of PGE 334 - Fall 2019: Reservoir Geomechanics at The University of Texas at Austin. We begin with a glossary of basic definitions and then progress through a discussion of some common antenna types and their properties. This is typical of sectors and that is how they achieve their high gains, by compressing the elevation plane. Rather, it should be used as a dictionary of basic antennas and antenna terminology as well as a tutorial specifically covering antenna patterns and the parameters associated with those patterns. The figure shows that if the antenna is tilted down 5 degrees as in the previously illustrated case, there is no null pointed far away from the antenna. See more. VERTICAL (Elevation) HORIZONTAL (Azimuth) 3-3.2 For an object that experiences a plane wave, the resonant mode is achieved when the dimension of the object is n8/2, where n is an integer. This is apparent in the design of sector antennas where the azimuth plane beamwidth is typically large compared to the elevation plane beamwidth. An antenna built with a single patch will have a maximum gain of about 9 dBi or a bit less. The azimuth and elevation plane patterns are derived by simply slicing through the 3D radiation pattern. GeoSierra Environmental employs the vertical hydraulic fracturing method (also known as vertical inclusion propagation or VIP) for both single and multi-azimuth installations in addition to horizontal fracture emplacement. This paper describes many of the common antenna parameters that can be understood from the patterns. Note that when a single number is stated for the gain of an antenna, it is assumed that this is the maximum gain (the gain in the direction of the maximum radiation). The elevation plane beamwidth is the total angular width between the two 3-dB points on the curve. Beamwidth and directionality are two cor… There is a single main lobe with a fairly wide beamwidth with shallow nulls pointing up and down from the antenna. The patterns from each antenna are shown and explained in detail, including a 3D radiation pattern. If the antenna is horizontal with respect to the earth, then the antenna pattern looks like that in the following figure (assuming, as we do in all modeling, a flat, uncluttered earth surface). Figure 10 shows the elevation plane in both coordinate systems. Vertical section plane: Vetrical section azimuth: degrees The resulting 3D pattern looks kind of like a donut or a bagel with the antenna sitting in the hole and radiating energy outward. The side lobes are labeled in all the plots. The resulting gain is about 5.8 dBi with an elevation plane beamwidth of about 38 degrees, as indicated again by the blue lines in the elevation plane shown in the Figure 5c. Before explaining why, let's get into why azimuth matters as much if not more than SRA. Solar panels should face directly into the sun to optimize their output. The first sidelobes are down from the peak about 14 dB. The focus is on many of the various antennas that might be encountered in a wireless LAN system. Thus the azimuth of the line equals the azimuth of the star minus the measured horizontal angle, or in equation form is: where Azline is the azimuth of the line at the time the azimuth of the star is determined, Azi is the azimuth of the star, and Ê to the right is the clockwise horizontal angle from the line to the star. The null in the middle of the pattern will point up and down. It is the angle between the vertical (north or 0°) and the line between the starting point and the desired end point. Many of these antennas have reflector shapes that are somewhat flat with some ridges or other features along the edges. A dipole antenna most commonly refers to a half-wavelength (λ/2) dipole. 2) that the horizontal angle lies in the plane perpendicular to the local ellipsoid normal (if warranted, a Laplace correction is used to accommodate the deflection-of-the-vertical). 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