Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. The metal weight calculator allows you to calculate the weight in pounds for your steel, stainless steel, aluminum, iron, silver and much more! Thanks for sharing... @wesley How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? Theoretically to remove 1 mg/L of PO4-P you need • 9.6 mg/L of Alum This indicates that at higher influent turbidities (higher particle concentrations), particle aggregation becomes easier and therefore effluent flocs are generally bigger and settle out faster. The leading Community in drinking waterand wastewater management. We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. Although alum is approved as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, it is toxic in large doses. Coagulation & Flocculation Calculations 17 Sedimentation Calculations 19 Chemical Feeder Calculations 21 Chemical Feeder Calibrations 22 Chemical Usage 23 Filtration Rate Calculations 24 Backwash Calculations 26 Chlorination Calculations 27 Laboratory Calculations 28 Horsepower & Pump Efficiency 31 Wire to Water Calculations 34 What intrusion detectors do you use? The amount of natural alkalinity required to react with the alum added in terms of CaCO 3 3. The solution to this problem was to dilute the alum to a lower concentration (1500 mg/L in our case) so that a higher alum flow rate would be required to obtain a particular influent concentration than when it was at 5000 mg/L. Besides, possible cost of treatment and toxicity effect of the chemical coagulant are indicated by the reduction dose of alum. 6. * An activated sludge retains between 10 to 20%. Dosage calculation formulas. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? Alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements. The experiments do not show conclusive evidence of where the optimal alum dose is for the different levels of turbidity. alum used (wet or dry), dosage rate, area treated, equipment rental or purchase, and labor. Iron in the form of ferric salt (chloride or sulphate) is the preferred coagulant when added in the absence of oxygen. The appropriate amount of alum required to facilitate total particle removal via the sedimentation of flocs is dictated by a couple key parameters: The concentration of clay particles and other natural organic matter (specifically the chemical properties of these contaminants and their reactivity with the dissolved Al species) will effect how much alum is needed. The amount of alum required to treat a flow of 1 MGD(million gallon /day) 2. These colorimetric tests allow for fast results and enable timely process control adjustments. The subsequent experiments at 100 NTU are correct as well as the runs for 50, 75, 150 NTU. This trend occurred across all turbidities (this observation is less obvious in the 100 NTU run, but the data does not necessarily oppose this observation) and is a phenomena that may be of significance in understanding alum effectiveness. Note: a) .the cost of Poly Aluminium Chloride is twice/thrice of Alum ( roughly the cost of PAC-$0.4/ Kg) The aluminum helps make the cell walls of fruits and vegetables sturdier, producing a crisp pickle or firm cherry. Various inorganic coagulants can be used to remove phosphorus in biological wastewater treatment. Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. I asked a colleague about your questions and we agree with Alinea's answer. In order to isolate alum dose as the only variable in our experiment, we must maintain mixing at a constant. Hope this helps! These aggregated contaminants had the potential to clog up the very narrow feed tubes that led out of the alum stock container. Figure 2: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 75 NTU. The calculation for the length of the tube was done by measuring the outer diameter of the cylinder around which the tube was wrapped (plus adjustments for the thickness of the tube itself) and multiplying that by ¿ to give the circumference and then multiplying the circumference by the number of times the tube wrapped completely around the cylinder. Put your risk from radiation exposure in perspective. Coagulation is the process of chemically destabilizing solutions whereby electrolytes are added into solution so as to reduce the charge on the colloidal particles, thus facilitating their close approach and aggregation. A second observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the marginal effectiveness (measured in both final turbidity and initial rate of settle) of increasing alum dose decreases significantly after about 25-30 mg/L of alum. In order to isolate and temporarily remove alum as a variable, a relationship between alum dose and influent turbidity must be determined. For the 50 NTU experiments (Figure 1) a general trend can be seen that indicates final turbidity decreases as alum dose increase. How will shock loads of infiltration water affect P removal? Nitrification - Alkalinity Calculator . The usual range of alum dose is 10 to 50 mg/L of water. Another general observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the settling rate of flocs increases dramatically between the alum dose of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L. 9. To monitor the amount of phosphorus, and the required dosage of coagulant, you will need to sample various locations to take suitable actions. 4 1 60 30 1 1 2 × × = The answer has to have tabs as units since that is the units for the dose on hand. You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. The increase in chloride in the treated water is much lower than the sulphate increase from alum, resulting in lower overall increases in the TDS of the treated water. Lower doses are required to give equivalent results to alum. Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 7 MGD with an alum feed rate of 340 lb/day. A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. While the need to fully understand the mechanism by which alum coagulates particles was not immediately pressing, it was important for our research to determine the most effective alum dose for various levels of turbidity in order to temporarily remove alum dosing as a variable in our later experiments. Too high a dose can result in pH problems, wasted chemical, increased chemical costs... Is there a general amount of P removed by biological/chemical treatment? Yield of the calculations : Polymer consumption GPD (neat) 428.49786 : Polymer consumption GPH (neat) 17.85408 : Polymer consumption GPM (neat) 0.29757 : Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) 38.08870 : PPM of polymer needed to make the process work : 3500 : 24: Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM : 0.29757 When over/under dosing for P removal 's the best material for pipes used maraschino. The U.S. food and Drug Administration, it is toxic in large doses figure 2: curves. 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