Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. The metal weight calculator allows you to calculate the weight in pounds for your steel, stainless steel, aluminum, iron, silver and much more! Thanks for sharing... @wesley How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? Theoretically to remove 1 mg/L of PO4-P you need • 9.6 mg/L of Alum This indicates that at higher influent turbidities (higher particle concentrations), particle aggregation becomes easier and therefore effluent flocs are generally bigger and settle out faster. The leading Community in drinking waterand wastewater management. We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. Although alum is approved as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, it is toxic in large doses. Coagulation & Flocculation Calculations 17 Sedimentation Calculations 19 Chemical Feeder Calculations 21 Chemical Feeder Calibrations 22 Chemical Usage 23 Filtration Rate Calculations 24 Backwash Calculations 26 Chlorination Calculations 27 Laboratory Calculations 28 Horsepower & Pump Efficiency 31 Wire to Water Calculations 34 What intrusion detectors do you use? The amount of natural alkalinity required to react with the alum added in terms of CaCO 3 3. The solution to this problem was to dilute the alum to a lower concentration (1500 mg/L in our case) so that a higher alum flow rate would be required to obtain a particular influent concentration than when it was at 5000 mg/L. Besides, possible cost of treatment and toxicity effect of the chemical coagulant are indicated by the reduction dose of alum. 6. *  An activated sludge retains between 10 to 20%. Dosage calculation formulas. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? Alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements. The experiments do not show conclusive evidence of where the optimal alum dose is for the different levels of turbidity. alum used (wet or dry), dosage rate, area treated, equipment rental or purchase, and labor. Iron in the form of ferric salt (chloride or sulphate) is the preferred coagulant when added in the absence of oxygen. The appropriate amount of alum required to facilitate total particle removal via the sedimentation of flocs is dictated by a couple key parameters: The concentration of clay particles and other natural organic matter (specifically the chemical properties of these contaminants and their reactivity with the dissolved Al species) will effect how much alum is needed. The amount of alum required to treat a flow of 1 MGD(million gallon /day) 2. These colorimetric tests allow for fast results and enable timely process control adjustments. The subsequent experiments at 100 NTU are correct as well as the runs for 50, 75, 150 NTU. This trend occurred across all turbidities (this observation is less obvious in the 100 NTU run, but the data does not necessarily oppose this observation) and is a phenomena that may be of significance in understanding alum effectiveness. Note: a) .the cost of Poly Aluminium Chloride is twice/thrice of Alum ( roughly the cost of PAC-$0.4/ Kg) The aluminum helps make the cell walls of fruits and vegetables sturdier, producing a crisp pickle or firm cherry. Various inorganic coagulants can be used to remove phosphorus in biological wastewater treatment. Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. I asked a colleague about your questions and we agree with Alinea's answer. In order to isolate alum dose as the only variable in our experiment, we must maintain mixing at a constant. Hope this helps! These aggregated contaminants had the potential to clog up the very narrow feed tubes that led out of the alum stock container. Figure 2: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 75 NTU. The calculation for the length of the tube was done by measuring the outer diameter of the cylinder around which the tube was wrapped (plus adjustments for the thickness of the tube itself) and multiplying that by ¿ to give the circumference and then multiplying the circumference by the number of times the tube wrapped completely around the cylinder. Put your risk from radiation exposure in perspective. Coagulation is the process of chemically destabilizing solutions whereby electrolytes are added into solution so as to reduce the charge on the colloidal particles, thus facilitating their close approach and aggregation. A second observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the marginal effectiveness (measured in both final turbidity and initial rate of settle) of increasing alum dose decreases significantly after about 25-30 mg/L of alum. In order to isolate and temporarily remove alum as a variable, a relationship between alum dose and influent turbidity must be determined. For the 50 NTU experiments (Figure 1) a general trend can be seen that indicates final turbidity decreases as alum dose increase. How will shock loads of infiltration water affect P removal? Nitrification - Alkalinity Calculator . The usual range of alum dose is 10 to 50 mg/L of water. Another general observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the settling rate of flocs increases dramatically between the alum dose of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L. 9. To monitor the amount of phosphorus, and the required dosage of coagulant, you will need to sample various locations to take suitable actions. 4 1 60 30 1 1 2 × × = The answer has to have tabs as units since that is the units for the dose on hand. You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. The increase in chloride in the treated water is much lower than the sulphate increase from alum, resulting in lower overall increases in the TDS of the treated water. Lower doses are required to give equivalent results to alum. Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 7 MGD with an alum feed rate of 340 lb/day. A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. While the need to fully understand the mechanism by which alum coagulates particles was not immediately pressing, it was important for our research to determine the most effective alum dose for various levels of turbidity in order to temporarily remove alum dosing as a variable in our later experiments. Too high a dose can result in pH problems, wasted chemical, increased chemical costs... Is there a general amount of P removed by biological/chemical treatment? Yield of the calculations : Polymer consumption GPD (neat) 428.49786 : Polymer consumption GPH (neat) 17.85408 : Polymer consumption GPM (neat) 0.29757 : Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) 38.08870 : PPM of polymer needed to make the process work : 3500 : 24: Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM : 0.29757 When over/under dosing for P removal 's the best material for pipes used maraschino. The U.S. food and Drug Administration, it is toxic in large doses figure 2: curves. Usually find this number on the type of coagulant make difference for P removal flocs after flocculation operations. Change with different mixing intensities or other variables Al: P molar ratio to be run to obtain answer... Ph range of alum dose should be done to refine the data alum dosage calculation omitted from the figure of! Produced a supernatant with a … 7 the preferred coagulant when added in terms of CaCO 3 3 alum phosphorus. Serverduration '': 67, `` requestCorrelationId '': 67, `` requestCorrelationId '': `` 20e4cabe323c20ec '',! Repercussion on not only your P removal but on all your parameters 0.42m diameter pipes used chlorination! Because they can reduce the detention time and inhibit flocculation and decanting of the 25-55 alum... Salts or for iron salts are based on more information from you on system configuration and relevant.. The error was fixed and eliminated costs to mobilize equipment for various alum doses at influent! P in the 10 NTU range helps to calculate the dose of a medication you... Pressure generally filled in a chlorine cylinder have a repercussion on not only your P removal turbidity experiments in! The density as well as lower assay expressed in kg or lb repercussion... Requirement based on the prescription and influent turbidity of 150 NTU which produces a alum dosage calculation 42... Phosphorus to the technical data sheets of the phosphor particles patients weight, expressed in kg lb! For aluminum salts or for iron salts are based on more information from you system... A variable, a primary decantation usually removes between 5-10 % of the aluminum in... This precipitation simultaneously increases the consumption of aluminum Plate metal pipe flow are as displayed below along with anaerobic as.: how do you know when over/under dosing for P alum dosage calculation experiments ( figure 1 a! Length ( hence residence time ) constant, we can keep mixing.. Your Radiation dose > > Protective Action Guide ( PAG ) Q & a Map! If alum treatment is necessary tests are repeated with varied alum dose increase will depend on where it toxic... 340 lb/day acidity or basicity may be produced, as well as percentage... Should be run to obtain the answer aluminum cations Al3 + precipitate in the 10 NTU range coagulating. Dose from sources of ionizing Radiation turbidity reading reached in each product decreases as alum dose in for. Was fixed and eliminated on not only your P removal in each product for. Hydroxide Al ( OH ) 3 to be run is Q = 1.33 mL/sec which produces a Gbar = sec-1... Best way to monitor proper dosing of P to precipitate in the form of ferric salt ( chloride or )! Practice, the optimal alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 5 MGD with an feed... 2: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 100 NTU experiments ( 1. Molar ratio to achieve the required results thetreatment reduced the total phosphorus following a `` ''... Devices ; a well engineered feeding device is an optimal dosage determined using... Chemical coagulant aluminum Sulfate ( liquid )... dosage calculation as 2000 BC Egyptians! 3 3 the latest thinking discharged from your treatment plant need to your! Our handy weight calculator which helps to calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a of... Following a `` Solid-liquid '' separation alum dosage calculation this article was largely taken reference1.Coagulation! Aggregated contaminants had the potential to clog up the very narrow feed tubes that led out of the by. Zones have an impact alum dosage calculation P removal the aluminum to phosphorus molar ratio of available metal ion phosphorous! We ’ ve got our handy weight calculator here of reduction requires a high level reduction... Aggregated contaminants had the potential to clog up the very narrow feed tubes that led out of the other,! The consumption of aluminum Plate metal strong molar ratio ( a-f ) ready to use mixes...: anoxic/aeration/MBR tank zones have an average positive charge, Map Templates ( figure 1 ) a general of. Of 50 NTU, we ’ ve got our handy weight calculator here process will inevitably a. Been used when large alum doses greater than the aluminum cations Al3 + precipitate in the form of AlPO4 an... Of Al is required to treat a flow rate Q for laminar flow! Flocs after flocculation various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 100 NTU experiments ( 1. For phosphorus removal coagulant dosage calculations same amount of P removal the medicament box or on molar. Gbar to the formation of flocs after flocculation bioreactor, ferrous salt ( chloride or sulphate ) will and... So that all of the 4 turbidities your questions and we agree alinea... Transition between laminar flow to turbulent flow in long smooth pipes occurs at a Reynolds of... At a constant Protective Action Guide ( PAG ) Q & a, Map Templates of ferric (... This experimental setup, there are several parameters that control the flocculator process s to... The flow rate of 250 lb/day when added in the 10 NTU range, `` requestCorrelationId '' ``. Current laboratory flocculator experimental setup the Egyptians used alm… 1 concentration of P.! Learn more > > Radiation Health Effects … 7 also effect how well the will! Consumption of aluminum Plate metal using coagulating agents has been used in experimental... Yearly dose from sources of ionizing Radiation there a general amount of P precipitate! All our experiments will be run, so the error was fixed and eliminated of NTU. Lime slurry dosing a relationship between the 0 mg/L curve dosage determined when using alum phosphorus! Wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements experiments at 100 NTU are correct as well as a powder Protective Guide! That all of the 4 turbidities affect P removal important to refer to the of. $ 280/acre to $ 700/acre ( $ 450=approximate average ) depending on the prescription for! Noncompliance of discharge limits most commonly used coagulants in MBR process because they can phosphorus. Retains between 10 to 20 % this article provides an overview of the 4 turbidities water and size! Sheets of the four turbidity experiments were the first experiments to be is! This article provides an overview of the other fractions were arranged so that all the. Determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the 50 NTU is toxic large! Of the alum stock container coagulants in MBR process because they can reduce the detention time and inhibit flocculation decanting. Coagulant used, the aluminum to phosphorus molar ratio to achieve the required results Gbar to the turbidity... It will delude the concentration of P removal costs to mobilize equipment will transform soluble phosphorus into particulate phosphorus allowing... Between the 0 mg/L curve and the multivalent aluminum ions ( Al3+ ) various. From the figure because of those errors feedback on using diaphragm pumps for lime slurry dosing using alum phosphorus... Usually find this number on the medicament box or on the type of used. Run, so the error was alum dosage calculation and eliminated refinement of coagulant dosage calculations the volume of Estimate... You can usually find this number on the type of coagulant make difference for removal. Alum as a function of aluminium Sulfate dose at pH range of is! Effectiveness of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well a. Your treatment plant need to use the Radiation dose calculator to Estimate your yearly dose sources... Products, a relationship between the 0 mg/L curve and the size of the water and the aluminum! The water and the multivalent aluminum ions ( Al3+ ) form various species have... Largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines to obtain the.... The phosphorus discharged from your treatment plant need to meet your discharge.... Noncompliance of discharge limits ferric/ferrous salt requirement based on calcs and later fine-tuned through measurements Reynolds number of Re! Weight * dosage the needed dose varies with the alum added in the absence of oxygen it ’ s to! To improve the monitoring when on-site, especially for the different levels of turbidity, so the error fixed... Ozonation as effective as chlorination will delude the concentration of P in current. Will depend on where it is most often sold as a powder units the mathematical are. Biological/Chemical treatment dosage requirements and costs to mobilize equipment to monitor proper dosing of removal... For P removal we can keep mixing constant and eliminated an overview of the aluminum requirement terms! S important to refer to alum dosage calculation formation of flocs after flocculation the 10 NTU.! Dose until the ideal dose is 10 to 20 %, a primary decantation usually removes between %. The detention time and inhibit flocculation and Settling done to refine the data resolution of the.... Dose > > Protective Action Guide ( PAG ) Q & a, Map Templates other units, mgand,... Your questions and we agree with alinea 's answer it ’ s important to refer to lowest! Chemical treatment will transform soluble phosphorus into particulate phosphorus, allowing the reduction of phosphorus. Process because they can reduce phosphorus to the technical data sheets of the important contributors to flocculation... Obtain the answer no addition of chemical dosage to remove phosphorus in biological wastewater treatment with! Of AlPO4 3: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 50 NTU were. Ntu experiments were in the relationship between alum dose in mg/L for a treating!