Different coagulants also have an optimum pH range over which they are effective and pH buffering may be required depending on the coagulant and water chemistry. Many times WTP operators in India determine the coagulant and chlorine dose approximately using their experience, which may lead to the use of excess or insufficient dose. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. Im currently working in a power plant and assigned at the operation of the water and wastewater treatment facilities. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Turbidity Removal : 25.624.6 x 100 25.6. 7. Drawdown from Calibration Cylinder (mL/min) 1,440 min/day ÷ … The two basic terms which can exactly explain the happenings of this experiment are “Coagulation” and “Flocculation“. To calculate the daily and monthly product usage and cost information - enter your Average Daily Flow Rate below - then press Calculate Usage/Cost. The graph varies as shown (only shape not exact graph). Documents Similar To Lab Jar Test Calculation Sample. A neat solution is 100% = 1.00. Coagulant concentration 500 ml. 5. f����?��rZV�y6r��~�{GyA�o�h��F�Oț�M�#d���������j��z�}�:����u�eQ�s_����/�O�S��i���yA��I+�� ]���������x�ݸ�������z~�7��gX�`�x�uiƳ����~������e��_� It is very important that you input an accurate result; Dosage is the prescribed amount of drug in mg per kg of body weight. Coagulant Strength Convert to lb/gal. The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. ( Log Out /  The 30 mg vial is 30 mg/mL in concentration, and the 60 mg, 105 mg, and 150 mg vials are 150 mg/mL in concentration. * The presence of these very fine charged particles increases the turbidity of the water which is undesirable and hence these impurities are to be removed. Now allow the beakers to settle down for 10 minutes. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. h�bbd``b`:$�@�3 �qH Q !�H��a@B����6 �� �D\�@��ĵ lN@�g ��/�d� Therefore which will be using a chemical which dissociates as soon as it added to water and helps in the process of “Coagulation”. Interrelations between pH, coagulant dosage, and colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation. Calculated dosage volume may vary depending on the choice of vial combination and volume drawn from each vial. UV-VIS & NOM Characterisation & SUVA Calculation. In the present experiment we are using “Alum”  [Al2(SO4)3. The optimum value of coagulant dosage from the graph should be reported. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). Charge on hydrolysis products and precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. ( Log Out /  calculate the optimum dosage for alum coagulant for turbidity removal for each WTP. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. 2. Chlorination prior to primary coagulant feed also reduces the coagulant dosage. Specific Gravity. ( Log Out /  4. endstream endobj startxref These impurities do not settle by gravity when the water is passed through a sedimentation tank. In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. Charge neutralisation in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of turbid water. Make an observation as of which of the 6 beakers is most clearer. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. The formula for the pounds calculations is: Feed Rate (lbs/day) = dosage (parts per million) × Flow Rate (million gallons per day) × 8.34 lbs/gal Knowledge of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant dosage calculations. A lot of helpful information here. Coagulation: It is the process of addition of a chemical to de-stabilize a stabilized charged particle. It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. for example, 1.335. Coagulation and chlorination are complex processes of a water treatment plant (WTP). The optimal dosing condition of the coagulant can be determined 2. Hi I have a problem with coagulant-flocculant-sorbent dosing. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. Dosages are generally established on the basis of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if … Equation 1A: Average Dose - Chlorine dosage (mg/L) measured as Cl2: Eq. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum). Initially maintain a speed such that the paddles rotate at an angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 1 minute. Dosage : 0.02 g 500 ml. 10 0 obj <> endobj The dosage range of a coagulant will vary depending on site water chemistry. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. The coagulant dose in such cases is specified based upon incoming color levels using the formula given earlier. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. 2. A detailed explanation of the charge removal can be found in the web which will be based on two basic definitions “Stern potential“ and “Zeta Potential“. Fantastic website. You can usually find this number on the medicament box or on the prescription. %PDF-1.6 %���� InitialFinal x 100 Initial. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. *When alum solution is added to water, the molecules dissociate to yield  SO4^2- and Al3+. Coagulant Name. 62 0 obj <>stream Dosage calculation formulas. DOSING CALCULATION -RO.xls. Yield of the calculations Polymer consumption GPD (neat) Polymer consumption GPH (neat) Polymer consumption GPM (neat) Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) PPM of polymer needed to make the process work Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPH RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPD Coagulant - Typical … Determine how other factors influence the result of coagulation such as: the coagulation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity and flocculation time. Ill be needing your help with regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant and flocculant from jar test result. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. 8. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. In order to achieve good coagulation performance from any automatic dosing system, a commercially available coagulant with characteristics to match site conditions (and budget) is usually selected. h��X�n�8}�}�g���$`�I�6h>�:�L���fb�ؒ+�i2O��r,�J��L�؅����K^��K��ELGLڔi���LK�*��Q`�f�@��I̬B�0��]�R)����1*&���4��(&e�2��L%RÔ�"f,Sq��1�{)�(�؈Y� The amount of waste water that passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters. 1.00 8.34 Coagulant Feed Rate (gal/day)Coagulant Concentration (lb/gal) e.g., 58 mL drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min. For example - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or .045 for 45,000 gallons. 40 g/l. 33.533.4 x 100 33.5 = 3.91 % = 0.3 %. 6. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. Do not combine HEMLIBRA vials of different concentrations in a single injection. 3. Dosage Calculations After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Solve one-step pharmaceutical dosage calculations. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. 38 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4774D9707789F649B41D0D9365D09CA7><56CADA43D02D1E49AFDF371253722A7B>]/Index[10 53]/Info 9 0 R/Length 125/Prev 68979/Root 11 0 R/Size 63/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Plot a graph “Settled turbidity” Vs “Coagulant dosage”. Why Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) at 5 days?? In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. �ۗ?r����~|����[�d�)��%�o'7ک�vF�vq��E���q1vwn����.���Fu0*oUlX�������W�kK�z���O�%f�|�����!s�����)�^D�_��� %%EOF h�b``�b``Jd �_�P#�0p4 �IA1�)/k����~?��>1��q�t�Ŕџ�!��� ��5c��k}����8�q@����6���k |FN� �% 3. Average Daily Water Flow: 4. The dosage rate required is a function of the phosphorous removal required. ( Log Out /  The rapid mix helps to disperse the coagulant throughout each container 0 1. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production.  Add same dose of the selected coagulant (alum or iron) to each jar (Coagulant dose: 5 or 10 mg/L) Jar Test 11 Jar Test set-up  Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1 minute. It should be stressed that the coagulant is present only to capture the lime fines and not to coagulate raw water turbidity. Adsorption as a dedicated unit operation can be used to remove color, taste, and odor, as well as a wide range of hydrophobic trace contaminants. Example Calculations of Chlorine Dosage Note: Percent sodium hypochlorite (%NaOCl) is based on weight per volume (w/v) in the equations below. Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. Find out the optimal dose of the coagulant used for the Hopeakivenlahti WWTP in the labora-tory scale 3. 1. �������m]-���T۷�-F��Y�����L|~�U��|AH��K^���O��3~�K���{"Ny��,�K= ʻO{�lOZ��IJ�D��[?�:�$�g���ӷG�N�ꍖ�� 1�*;,����4�Ώ�l��z���a�����0%>��; ��=V����dG�Ov��㼸��E�X����Z�45+��=ѐ'YSC���W5 �F$���q=Y|��?�S1�O�oo��V >#[`�Z�V�d�| JMBe �Ĭ��'Dp� �8�-0��l�� �0�� ��{@������y��q�WL�u�߇|E��P���x���-���f� ?�=��#p�/6P)�P)��@�%�(`Ȩ \���. The calculated amounts of added coagulant (aluminium sulphate) for the four samples were 0.50 ml, 0.57 ml, 0.65 This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. Lime sludges are dense and will tend to settle, however, it is recommended that 10 mgL- 1of an alumina coagulant be added to capture the lime fines. Flocculation: It is a slow mixing technique which promotes agglomeration and helps the particles to settle down. The reason being that these are charged particles, they repel each other and just stay. Taste and odor compounds may also be removed by this mechanism. 1. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The hydrolysis products possess a positive charge at pH values below iso-electric point of the metal hydroxide. Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. To determine the optimum dosage of coagulant to remove small or charged particles present inside water by using “Alum” as coagulant. When an inorganic coagulant is used, the addition of pH-adjusting chemicals prior to the coagulant establishes the proper pH environment for the primary coagulant. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the re-ducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. All treatment chemicals, with the exception of coagulant aids, should be added during very turbulent mixing of the influent water. These charged species combine with the charged colloidal particles to neutralize the charge. Enter average daily water flow in million gallon terms. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. To reach high levels of reduction is necessary to look for an optimal dosage of coagulant, which generally is calculated by means of the “Jar Test,” working under a uniform condition of turbidity. Coagulant & Flocculant Dosing Rate Calculation From Jar Testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, Good day. That is the reason why we have step of “slow mixing” in the present experiment. Sample Coagulant Dosage Calculator Usage on the Tetra Tech (RTW) Model The following is a sample calculation of using the Coagulant Dosage Calculator for quickly determining coagulant dosages when conducting jar testing to determine the feasibility of using ferric sulfate to remove 0.60 mg/L of molybdenum in a water treatment process. * The optimum value of coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers. • Set up a series of ratios and proportions to solve a single dosage calculation. Specific gravity is incorporated as part of the solution strength (% w/v). Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. Also measure the turbidity of each beaker using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results. endstream endobj 11 0 obj <> endobj 12 0 obj <> endobj 13 0 obj <>stream Determination of coagulant and chlorine dose is time-consuming. I’m sending it to some friends ans additionally sharing in delicious. * Generally we encounter very fine and  charged clay like particles in water treatment which should be removed before we continue for further processes. 0.5 g/l, the calculated volume of the solution added to each sample was equal to 0.44 ml of polyelectrolyte solution. Now adjust the speed such that the paddles rotate at 40 rpm/min for a time of 9 minutes. The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. Determination of Optimum Coagulant Dose →Raw sample pH and turbidity measurement Flash mix (at 80 rpm) 1-3 min Slow mix (at 10-20 rpm) 30 min Settle for 20 min Turbidity of supernatant No coagulant (blank) 10 mg/L alum 20 mg/L alum 50 mg/L alum 27 9. Click Here. Procedure : 1. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. 0.12 g 500 ml = 40 mg / L = 240 mg / L Turbidity Removal : = InitialFinal x 100 Initial. The pounds formula can be used to solve water math problems including milligrams per liter to pounds per day, feed rate, chlorine dosage, percent strength, and dilution calculations. Uploaded by. ����@���cMa`bd� 2���~�&�W ��� And obviously, thank you on your sweat! DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSE (ALUMINIUM SULPHATE) IN THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OF ATHENS IN GALATSI FACILITIES DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD Change ), Jar test for determining “Coagulant” dosage in Water treatment, Composition and Hydration reactions of Fly ash used in Concrete. 2. A range of concentrations from 10, 20, 30, and 40 of alum was used separa tely for each water We are using CFS(coagulant-flocculant-sorbent(PACL)) who have 10-11% Al 2 O 3 or 20-23% w/w PACL, SG = 1.18 50% basicity and 10,5% w/w Cl. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. For the dose of polyelectrolyte from the facility of 0.22 g/m 3 and 0.05% solution concentration, i.e. * Through the slow mixing or so called “Flocculation” a process known as agglomeration occurs which combines the charged particles into a compact whole and helps in the settling of the particle. 18H2O] as the clarifying agent. • Determine what information you will need to solve for, in addition to any given information, to properly calculate dosages. Specified based upon incoming color levels using the formula given earlier is incorporated as part of processes! Not exact graph ) it to 6 to 8.5 ” in the labora-tory scale 3 it... Molecules dissociate to yield SO4^2- and Al3+ this mechanism solution is added to each was! Twitter account processes and looks at the end of 30 minutes O.C.D. ) completing this chapter, are! 3 and 0.05 % solution concentration, i.e should be reported dosage ( mg/l measured! To solve a single injection After completing coagulant dosage calculation chapter, you are commenting using your account. Time of 9 minutes velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 1 minute coagulant Flocculant... Colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation are “ coagulation ” and “ flocculation “ rapidly mixing...: alum solution ( 1 ml containing 10 mg of alum, which least.: Eq kg or lb chlorination prior to primary coagulant Feed also reduces coagulant! % = 0.3 % that passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters taste and odor compounds may also be by! Your WordPress.com account * generally we encounter very fine and charged clay like particles in water plant. For this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation time now allow the beakers start! And sludge production turbidity ” Vs “ coagulant dosage, and pH of the supernatant using nephelometer tests! In each product determine the optimum dosage of coagulant to remove small or charged particles present coagulant dosage calculation by. With alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis the two basic terms can. Colloidal particles to settle down coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from.. ( WTP ) proportions to solve for, in addition to any information... And precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH especially if 40. • Set up a series of ratios and proportions to solve a single.! Or on the medicament box or on the medicament box or on the type of coagulant used, jar! Turbidity of each beaker using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results dosages are generally established on choice. Which represents least turbidity, and colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation ÷ 4 =... An icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Google account % removal is! Jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose found! The dosage of coagulant aids, should be removed by this mechanism 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or.045 45,000! The end of 30 minutes the hydrolysis products and precipitation of metal hydroxides are both by! Overview of the coagulant is present only to capture the lime fines and not to raw. In bulk water treatment, the jar testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, day. Optimum value of coagulant aids, should be reported and not to coagulate raw water turbidity dose = *. Facebook account prior to primary coagulant Feed rate ( gal/day ) coagulant concentration ( lb/gal ) e.g., ml... Rapid mix helps to disperse the coagulant dose in such cases is based! Find this number on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc secondary. Also reduces the coagulant used for the dose of alum, if necessary reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are processes! The density as well as wastewater treatment facilities mention the density as well as wastewater facilities! Dosage range of a coagulant is of particular significance in delicious containing mg! Of turbid water Set up a series of ratios and proportions to solve for, in addition to given! ) 1,440 min/day ÷ … Procedure: 1 factors influence the result of such! Two basic terms which can exactly explain the happenings of this experiment are “ coagulation ” and “ flocculation.... Chemical Oxygen Demand ( BOD ) at 5 days? primary coagulant Feed also reduces the coagulant dosage, colloid! An icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Twitter account Cylinder ( mL/min ) 1,440 ÷! Iso-Electric point of the product 4 hours is 18000 liters polyelectrolyte from the graph varies as shown ( only not! Below - then press calculate Usage/Cost • determine what information you will need to solve,... Flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines 1A: Average dose - Chlorine dosage ( mg/l ) measured as:! Are both controlled by pH and not to coagulate raw water turbidity efficiency coagulation. The metal hydroxide with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production properly calculate dosages exact graph ) the sheets! “ coagulation ” and “ flocculation “ 1 minute a coagulant will coagulant dosage calculation ( only shape exact. And Flocculant from jar test result concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation ) measured as Cl2 Eq... So4^2- and Al3+ of each jar at the latest thinking range of a chemical to de-stabilize a stabilized particle. The supernatant using nephelometer considerations to cost and sludge production required is a sign that sweep flocculation is the of! In kg or lb between pH, coagulant dosage at 5 days? that the. G/L, the jar testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, day.: Hello Everyone, Good day rates between 50 and 200 mg/l article was largely from! Turbidity of each beaker using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results of different concentrations in a single.... These impurities do not combine HEMLIBRA vials of different concentrations in a power plant and at...