The principle of autonomy stems from the theory of deontology (1). Ethicists Edward Spence defines ethics as 'a set of prescriptive rules, principles, values and virtues of character that inform and guide interpersonal and interpersonal conduct' (Spence and van Heekeren, 2005, p. 2). Which approach do you find more persuasive, and why? Kant held that nothing is good without qualification except a good will, and a good will is one that wills to act in accord with the moral law and out of respect for that law rather than out of natural inclinations. Deontology comes from the Greek word for duty, deon. [47] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. [2] Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. Deontology (or Deontological Ethics) is an approach to Ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions (Consequentialism) or to the character and habits of the actor (Virtue Ethics). We have an incomplete understanding of the extent or distribution of pathology required to produce neurological dysfunction or to distinguish diseased from healthy tissue, with the neuropathological changes reported in apparently asymptomatic individuals.”[33], Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. [37] Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). They’re all in good shape. Deontology is a school of moral philosophy in which ethical behavior equals following rules. Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics. Unlike consequentialism, which judges actions by their results, deontology doesn’t require weighing the costs and benefits of a situation. One study found no statistically significant difference between the all-cause mortality among career NFL players and NFL replacement players who played just three games during the strike of 1987. Explain. Furthermore, many of the miners in the Kachin region, on both sides of the conflict, are not fully aware of the value of the amber that they are selling and are therefore being exploited by the wholesalers who purchase from them. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. A 2007 study found that retired NFL players experienced levels of depressive symptoms no worse than those of the general population. How do we answer that question? Deontology is the theory that a person should do his duty, based on whether the action taken is itself right or wrong under the applicable laws. Deontology advises not to violate this rule. Kant's theory is an example of a deontological or duty-based ethics : it judges morality by examining the nature of actions and the will of agents rather than goals achieved. [56] Professor Goldberg argues that “there is little evidence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]. At a popular level, the international emphasis on protecting human rights—and thus on the duty not to violate them—can also be seen as a triumph of deontological ethics. Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. [70] Nicholas Dixon, Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism, Social Theory and Practice, 27(2): 323-344 (2001). [58] Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence. It is known as Deontology and the great champion of Deontology was a Prussian named Immanuel Kant. ... Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals,1898. See also Ann C. McKee et al., The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain, 136(1)): 43-64 (2013)(study of donated brains of 64 athletes found “the stage of [CTE] correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death” for 34 football players). [52] Janine Armstrong, NFL Concussion Protocol Explained: How Does It Work?, Sportcasting, Oct. 13, 2019, at https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/. Given the obvious conflict of interest, the studies have been criticized on that ground. [83] Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. Explain why and how using that approach might play out. Deontological ethics, in philosophy, ethical theories that place special emphasis on the relationship between duty and the morality of human actions. Relatedly, should fans of the game be ashamed of themselves? Copyright © 2020 Ethics Unwrapped - McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html, https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921, https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds, https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html, https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html, https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full, https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019, https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/, https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html, https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. Deontology is a theory that suggests actions are good or bad according to a clear set of rules. The term deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. Deontology derives from the Greek word “deon,” meaning duty or obligation. If you apply Systematic Moral Analysis to the question of whether or not it is moral to continue to support and/or play football, do you get different results for different league categories and age groups? This […] The deontological principle states that man is under a moral obligation to act in accordance with laid-down rules irrespective of the outcome. How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions? Autonomy is concerned with individuality and a person's unique wishes and values. Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football? It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. (Roughly, a deontological theory looks at inputs rather than outcomes.) Rossian deontology postulates a plurality of basic moral principles, such as the principle not to harm people and the principle of promise keeping. Utilitarian and Deontological principles can be utilized to resolve ethical dilemmas that arise in the nursing profession. Is it always a consideration that buyers should take into account? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Support your position with data and facts. [52], On the other hand, while football helmets can prevent fractured skulls, they will likely never be able to prevent concussions. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life. “Football is both notorious and cherished for its unapologetic, brute-force violence.”[1] Players suffer bruises, lacerations, torn muscles, dislocated shoulders, torn knee ligaments, broken bones, internal organ damage, and, occasionally, even paralysis. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. In essence, fulfilling one’s obligations is ethical, no matter what the impact will be on society. And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. Hence, lying is considered wrong, even if it is to benefit or bring about better consequences. The reality is that we still don’t know who is most likely to suffer a concussion, who will take longer to recover, how anatomic or genetic differences influence concussions, and who may be at risk of prolonged symptoms or developing cognitive problems later in life.”[34], Furthermore, many of the studies cited by those who would like to abolish tackle football have involved relatively small sample sizes. [30] Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, Sokol, Joshua, “Troubled Treasure,” Science, May 23, 2019.   https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, Thiha, “Myanmar’s New Gold Mine is Dinosaur Amber, July 11, 2018. https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, Xing, Linda et al., “A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber,” Current Biology, 26: 24, pl. ), rather than results or consequences. [66] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? First, duty should be done for dutys sake. 3. [8] Such proteins develop in tangles that slowly strangle neurons and, consequently, inhibit brain function.[9]. [41] Ashwin L. Rao et al., Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic (NCAA) Athletes: a 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database, Sports Health 7(5): 452-457 (2015). 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile. Deontological ethics is a moral philosophy where the usual ethical definition of right or wrong is based on a series of rules to follow instead of the consequences which occur from such a decision. In deontology, ethical decisions are made according to the principles of duty. 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