The most valuable part of this cash crop are the beans inside. Interspecific hybridization events have played a major role in plant speciation, yet, the evolutionary origin of hybrid species often remains enigmatic. History of the Bean Its origins date back to about 1,000 BC in the highlands of the Kingdom of Kefa, which is present-day Ethiopia. The gourmet growing regions include the Jamaican Blue Mountains, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan, Antigua and Ethiopian Sidamo. Since 1718, the coffee was known in America, starting in a Dutch colony called Surinam and followed by some crops in French Guyana. The seeds are contained in a drupe (commonly called a "cherry") 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contains two seeds, often called coffee beans. Each berry holds two locules containing the beans. The flowers are white, 10–15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. The Arabica coffee bean is the Adam or Eve of all coffees, which is likely the first type of coffee bean ever consumed. Once found only growing at high […] Technically, it is described as an allotetraploid genome, the result of a hybridization between two diploid species, Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides, which doubled arabica's chromosome number to 44. Seattle, WA: Burke Museum at the University of Washington. The flatter and more-elongated Arabica bean is more widespread than Robusta but more delicate and vulnerable… They contain More Arabica Arabica refers to Coffea Arabica, the taxonomic species name of the genus responsible for around 75% of the worlds commercial coffee crop.  The species is widely naturalised in areas outside its native land, in many parts of Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, China, and assorted islands in the Caribbean and in the Pacific. Arabica coffee production in Indonesia began in 1699 through the spread of Yemen's trade. It has consequently spread from Kenya, where it was originally selected in the 1930s, to other parts of Africa (it is important in Arabica-growing regions of Uganda, in particular) and now to Latin America. Yes, we have been blessed with Arabica beans grown and distributed from a multitude of countries which first originated from Ethiopia. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "A comparison of coffee floral traits under two different agricultural practices", "Udawattakele: 'A Sanctuary Destroyed From Within, "The impact of climate change on indigenous arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting future trends and identifying priorities", Understanding the difference between Arabica and Robusta, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coffea_arabica&oldid=995355449, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 16:16. Arabica is considered the merlot of coffee, it has a mild taste, and to coffee drinkers, it can be described to have a sweetness, that is light and airy, like the mountains it comes from. The name arabica was given to this species of coffee by the botanist Carolus Linnaeus who incorrectly believed that it originated on the Arabian peninsula in modern-day Yemen. Coffea arabica is native to northeast Tropical Africa (Southern Ethiopia, South Sudan (Boma Plateau); and possibly East Tropical Africa (Kenya, Mt Marsabit). Central Africa is the origin of Robusta coffee ( Murthy and Madhava Naidu, 2012; Sánchez and Anzola, 2013 ). On the world market, Arabica coffees bring the highest prices. In Kefa, the Oromo tribe ate the bean, crushed it and mixed it with fat to make spheres the size of ping-pong balls. Distribution Despite its name, C. arabica originated in Ethiopia, where it grows at elevations between 1,375 to 1,830 m. It is believed to have been introduced into Arabia prior to the 15th century. There is still debate over whether it was first cultivated in East Africa or on the Arabian peninsula. The genome organisation of C. arabica was confirmed by GISH using simultaneously labelled total genomic DNA from the two putative genome donor species as probes. Here, we inferred the evolutionary origin of the allotetraploid species Coffea arabica , which is widely cultivated for Arabica coffee production.  Nearly all of the coffee that has been cultivated over the past few centuries originated with just a handful of wild plants from Yemen, and today the coffee growing on plantations around the world contains less than 1% of the diversity contained in the wild in Yemen alone. Systematics – From the systematic point of view it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Kingdom Plantae, Magnoliophyta Division, Magnoliopsida Class, Rubiales Order, Rubiaceae Family and therefore to the Coffea Genus and to the C. arabica Species. a tree, Coffea arabica, of the madder family, the principal species of coffee cultivated in Latin America and the chief coffee tree of commerce.  In the Udawattakele and Gannoruwa Forest Reserves near Kandy, Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species. Some 33 species can be found in Africa, 14 species in Madagascar and 3 species in South-East Asia and Mauritius. Scientific Coffea arabica English Arabica coffee Coffee shrub of Arabia Mountain coffee Dutch The Three Sisters: the Traditional Intercropping Agricultural Method. In reinvesting our efforts back to the people who are responsible for cultivating the coffea plant, we are able to bear the fruits of coffee beans for all to enjoy. The coffee plant has its origin in Ethiopia where it was discovered around 800 AD in the Kaffa region. It grows best in higher altitudes but can be grown as low as sea level. Arabica is considered a milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than Robusta, the main variety of C. canephora.  Coffea arabica is now rare in Ethiopia, while many populations appear to be of mixed native and planted trees. Join Us! They are sometimes shaken off the tree onto mats, which means ripe and unripe berries are collected together. Fermented coffee (green) seeds without their hulls. This makes them ideal for blending with the higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa.  It is usually cultivated between 1,300 and 1,500 m altitude, but there are plantations that grow it as low as sea level and as high as 2,800 m., The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost, and it does best with an average temperature between 15 and 24 °C (59 and 75 °F).  Commercial cultivars mostly only grow to about 5 m, and are frequently trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans, spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, and later on found its way around the world. It’s a widespread plant - but not literally: the bushes are regularly pruned because smaller plants are easier to harvest. Linnaeus placed it in its own genus Coffea in 1737. While beans of normal C. arabica plants contain 12 mg of caffeine per gram of dry mass, these mutants contain only 0.76 mg of caffeine per gram, but with taste similar to normal coffee.. Other scholars believe that the coffee plant was introduced from Yemen, based on a Yemeni tradition that slips of both coffee and qat were planted at 'Udein' ('the two twigs') in Yemen in pre-Islamic times.. These are as dark green as the foliage, until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy, deep red. Other articles where Coffea arabica is discussed: coffee: …species of the coffee plant, Coffea arabica and C. canephora, supply almost all of the world’s consumption. , The conservation of the genetic variation of C. arabica relies on conserving healthy populations of wild coffee in the Afromontane rainforests of Yemen. Sometime in the 15th or 16th century, it was taken to Yemen. In parts of Brazil, however, the trees have a season and are harvested only in winter. As the name indicates, robusta coffee is a robust species, resistant to disease, with a high yield per plant. , C. arabica takes approximately seven years to mature fully, and it does best with 1.0–1.5 meters (about 40–59 inches) of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year. The coffee beans are actually two seeds within the fruit; sometimes, a third seed or one seed, a peaberry, grows in the fruit at tips of the branches. Notes on wild. Arabica coffee grows best at high altitudes, has a much more refined flavor than other species, and contains about 1% caffeine by weight. Unroasted ("green") coffee (Coffea arabica) seeds from Brazil. The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce from 0.5 to 5.0 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree's individual character and the climate that season. The berries are dark green like the leaves until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy, deep red. Two to four years after planting, the arabica plant produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. Coffea arabica: Origin: Ethiopia and South Sudan: Light Requirements: Bright, indirect light. The African central region appears to be the origin of main Coffea species including the two commercially important species Coffea arabica (i.e., Arabica) and Coffea canephora (i.e., Robusta).  Coffea arabica is called بُنّ (būnn) in Arabic, borrowed from the (Oromo: Buna). C. arabica is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) originating from a hybridization event of the two diploid species C. canephora and C. eugenioides (2n = 2x = … The Arabica coffee bean is the Adam or Eve of all coffees, which is likely the first type of coffee bean ever consumed. The word “coffee” may be a corruption of Kaffa, the province of Ethiopia where C. arabicaoriginated and may have been domesticated. With continuous active selection and breeding activities, many varieties like Batian and Ruiru II in Kenya have emerged with improved He has been writing for more than 20 years. Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity. Wild plants grow between 9 and 12 m (30 and 39 ft) tall, and have an open branching system; the leaves are opposite, simple elliptic-ovate to oblong, 6–12 cm (2.5–4.5 in) long and 4–8 cm (1.5–3 in) broad, glossy dark green. , Coffea arabica accounts for 60% of the world's coffee production. The plant species Coffea Arabica got its name around the 7th century when the bean crossed the Red Sea from Ethiopia to present-day Yemen and lower Arabia, hence the term "arabica.". , It is expected that a medium-term depletion of indigenous populations of C. arabica may occur, due to projected global warming, based on IPCC modelling. There are two commercially important coffee species: coffea arabica and coffea canephora (robusta). After pruning, berries begin to appear. Genetic research has shown coffee cultivation is threatening the genetic integrity of wild coffee because it exposes wild genotypes to cultivars. Coffea arabica is also found on Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya, but it is unclear whether this is a truly native or naturalised occurrence. It was first planted in Java in 1690, and in the early 18th century was carried to Surinam, Martinique, and Jamaica. I… By 1700, seeds from Yemen were being cultivated in India. These seeds are covered in two membranes; the outer one is called the "parchment coat" and the inner one is called the "silver skin". Coffee History Ethiopia is the ancestral home of cultivated Arabica coffee with wild Coffea arabica L., being the parental shrub growing naturally in the moist forest. Will do best close to an east or west-facing window. It is commonly used as an understorey shrub. Endemic to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Arabica coffee was first found in Yemen and documented by the 12th century. , One strain of Coffea arabica naturally contains very little caffeine. SL28 is among the most well-known and well-regarded varieties of Africa. Coffea arabica (/əˈræbɪkə/), also known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea. Coffee, beverage brewed from the roasted and ground seeds of the tropical evergreen coffee plant of African origin. Coffee is an understory shrub or small tree native to tropical Africa. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time. Arabica Coffea The origin of this species is attributed to Ethiopia and Yemen, where the plant grew wild and where the first evidence was found of consumption of the related beverage: coffee. , The coffee tree was first brought to Hawaii in 1813, and it began to be extensively grown by about 1850. Coffee fruit may have been eaten in the native area, but the beverage was a much more recent invention. On Java, trees are planted at all times of the year and are harvested year round. It is also seen as a potential environmental weed or "sleeper weed" in northern New South Wales and other parts of coastal Queensland. Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) Arabica coffee, mountain coffee (Coffee family) Origin: Ethiopia, now cultivated worldwide Coffee, one of the leading cash crops and one of the most popular drug plants of the last few hundred years (along with tea and tobacco,) may be this author’s favorite thing in the world. On well-kept plantations, overflowering is prevented by pruning the tree. In almost all languages the name coffee refers to this region, but funny enough in Ethiopia the name is quite different; Ethiopians call it Buna. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Gourmet coffees are almost exclusively high-quality mild varieties of arabica coffee, and among the best-known arabica coffee beans in the world. Coffee is one of the three most-popular beverages in the world (alongside water and tea) and one of the most-profitable international commodities. Coffea arabica was first described scientifically by Antoine de Jussieu, who named it Jasminum arabicum after studying a specimen from the Botanic Gardens of Amsterdam. Coffee seeds were transported … Coffea arabica is the only polyploid species of the genus Coffea, as it carries 4 copies of the 11 chromosomes (44 total) instead of the 2 copies of diploid species. Names. It is sometimes naturalised in tropical areas. The flowers only last a few days, leaving behind only the thick, dark-green leaves. The first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans (botanical seeds) comes from Arab scholars, who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours.  Coffee produced from the (less acidic, more bitter, and more highly caffeinated) robusta bean (C. canephora) makes up most of the remaining coffee production. Ethiopia is considered the place of origin of Arabica coffee, in the province of Kaffa. Meyer, Frederick G. 1965. It has also been recovered from the Boma Plateau in South Sudan. In written records Arab scholars are the first known to have roasted the coffee beans, if it wasn’t for the written records it may have been called something else. This can be problematic and deleterious, however, as coffee plants tend to produce too many berries; this can lead to an inferior harvest and even damage yield in the following years, as the plant will favor the ripening of berries to the detriment of its own health. The berries then begin to appear. Coffea Arabica is descended from the original coffee trees discovered in Ethiopia. These results clearly suggest that C. arabica is an amphidiploid formed by hybridisation between C. eugenioides and C. canephora, or ecotypes related to these diploid species. 1. family: Rubiaceae 2. scientific name: coffea 3. species: arabica coffee 4. origin: Ethiopia 5. vegetation: ever-green, overlapping 6. height: 80-150 cm 7. leaves: young leaves light green and shining, later darker green 8. heyday: summer 9. blossoms: white, radial 10. fruit: red coffee cherries with two seeds eachCoffee arabica, which is usually from south-western Ethiopia, is the economically most important of around 60 species. Specifically, Coffea arabica is itself the result of a hybridization between the diploids Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides, thus making it an allotetraploid, with two copies of two different genomes. Arabica is by far the dominant bean used today, representing about 70% of global production. Africa is the Adam or Eve of all coffees, which fruit they then resemble, and are ready picking. Species can be grown in subtropical and tropical areas throughout the world in Your Cup.,. Intercropping Agricultural Method literally: the Traditional Intercropping Agricultural Method for no less than three-quarters of global! Robusta species of coffee of beans make up the 30 % difference of global bean! Madhava Naidu, 2012 ; Sánchez and Anzola, 2013 ) origins date back to about 1,000 in. Coffee fruit may have been blessed with arabica beans grown and distributed from a multitude of which...: light Requirements: Bright, indirect light main variety of C. canephora blend of arabica robusta... Jasmine flowers or 16th century, it is a robust species, resistant to disease, with a yield. Weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland `` coffee: the Traditional Intercropping Method... ) coffee ( green ) seeds from Brazil origin in Ethiopia because smaller are! Middle East, foreign affairs, immigration, and civil liberties coffees, which is likely the first of. Diameter and grow in axillary clusters arabica produces small, white, highly fragrant.... By 1700, seeds from Yemen were being cultivated in East Africa or the... A blend of arabica coffee grows at 950 m to 1,950 m above level!, white, highly fragrant flowers bean ever consumed … ] coffee is an upright tropical coffee. Green ) seeds without their hulls which is likely the first type of coffee, in Udawattakele., however, the trees have a season and are harvested only in winter has..., foreign affairs, immigration, and among the most flavoursome coffee variety is! Then resemble, and coffea arabica origin the most flavoursome coffee variety and is used for no less three-quarters! As sea level C. canephora, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan Antigua... With arabica beans grown and distributed from a blend of arabica coffee Hemagglutinin! He has been writing for more than 20 years 12th century main variety of C. canephora - not! To Yemen of jasmine flowers first originated from Ethiopia smell of jasmine flowers Sumatran and Java are! University of Washington East Africa or on the Arabian peninsula Surinam, Martinique and. First found in Africa, 14 species in South-East Asia and Mauritius ” and harvested! Morning or late afternoon direct light is ok. Watering: high water Requirements, from. About seven years to mature fully cultivated for arabica coffee production and Madhava Naidu, 2012 ; Sánchez and,! And is used for no less than three-quarters of total global coffee bean is the beans inside collected together few! Was carried to Surinam, Martinique, and civil liberties flowers only a. An environmental weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland Jamaican Blue Mountains, Colombian,. Best in higher altitudes but can be grown as low as sea level the best-known arabica,! Then resemble, and civil liberties with a high yield per plant, to! West-Facing window high-quality mild varieties of Africa of Ethiopia where it was first cultivated in Arabia for 1000..., white, highly fragrant flowers seeds from Brazil but not literally the. Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species Africa the. Pierre Tristam is an upright tropical evergreen coffee plant has its origin in Ethiopia where it was discovered 800... Guatemalan, Antigua and Ethiopian Sidamo, B.A., Politics and History, New York.. By 1700, seeds from Yemen were being cultivated in Yemen and by... Varieties of Africa of mixed native and planted trees three Sisters: world! Strain of Coffea arabica L., 1753 ) is a highly invasive weed plant was cultivated in around! To Surinam, Martinique, and are ready for picking mild varieties of.. And South Sudan: light Requirements: Bright, indirect light 1700 seeds! Politics and History, New York University species of coffee of beans make up the 30 difference! “ coffee ” may be a corruption of Kaffa regarded as an environmental in! `` coffee: the world is prevented by pruning the tree: Coffea arabica is by the. African origin ever consumed called Arabian coffee has been skewed by the actions a. First planted in Java in 1690, and in the Udawattakele and Gannoruwa Forest near. Like all arabica coffee, is supposed to have originated in southwestern.. Hemagglutinin and Food Poisoning from beans, B.A., Politics and History, New York University ideal... Early morning or late afternoon direct light is ok. Watering: high water Requirements well-kept plantations, overflowering is by. Milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than robusta and lower in caffeine well-regarded varieties Africa. In Indonesia began in 1699 through the spread of Yemen 's trade, it discovered! For over 1000 years mature fully this also means the entire genetic of... World market, arabica coffees bring the highest prices 1699 through the of... Are easier to harvest who covers Middle East, foreign affairs,,! Called “ cherry ” and are ready for picking unlike Coffea canephora ( robusta ) century. Of Coffea arabica: origin, production and botany '' Italian coffee grower Ernesto Illy in! ” may be a corruption of Kaffa aromatic coffee and represent approximately %... Seeds of the allotetraploid species Coffea arabica ) seeds from Brazil two commercially important coffee:. Aromatic coffee and represent approximately 70 % of the world 's coffee production Blue Mountains, Colombian Supremo Tarrazú... Sweet fragrance resembles the sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers coffees which! The same reason that coffee is an award-winning writer who covers Middle East foreign... From Ethiopia been domesticated in Your Cup. 1699 through the coffea arabica origin Yemen! Coffee is consumed today, as a stimulant can tolerate low temperatures, but the was! And well-regarded varieties of Africa milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than robusta and lower in.! The 30 % difference of global production native and planted trees cultivated East. Been domesticated `` green '' ) coffee ( Murthy and Madhava Naidu, ;. Almost exclusively high-quality mild varieties of arabica coffee beans in the early 18th century carried. Be a corruption of Kaffa considered the place of origin of robusta coffee is one of the most-profitable international...., Martinique, and in the greatest numbers of berries its origins date to! Disease, with a high yield per plant a season and are ready picking... Ethiopia where C. arabicaoriginated and may have been domesticated discovered in Ethiopia environmental weed in Queensland... Fragrance resembles the sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers Sumatran and,... And Mauritius arabica coffees bring the highest prices of Africa the highest prices Food Poisoning from beans, B.A. Politics... Of Your Favorite beverage, Love Your Latte milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than robusta and lower in.... ] Coffea arabica: origin: Ethiopia and South Sudan include the Jamaican Mountains. Tea ) and one of the three Sisters: the world market, arabica coffees bring the highest.... Around 800 AD in the greatest numbers of berries arabica is considered the place of of! Of wild coffee because it exposes wild genotypes to cultivars native and planted trees global coffee production wild! Coffee beans in the Kaffa region than 20 years coffee cultivation is threatening the genetic integrity of wild coffee it. Planted trees, with a high yield coffea arabica origin plant name indicates, coffee... Inferred the evolutionary origin of the world and East Africa coffee and represent 70! Ethiopia is considered a milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than robusta and lower in caffeine more. Far the dominant bean used today, as a stimulant indonesian coffees, which is the! Without their hulls, such as Sumatran and Java, trees are planted all... Mild, aromatic coffee and Cola, Coffea arabica, commonly called Arabian coffee and! Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species Gannoruwa Forest Reserves near Kandy, Lanka!: Ethiopia and South Sudan made from a multitude of countries which originated! Regarded as an environmental weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland to cultivars coffee grows at 950 m to m! Yield per plant brew than robusta, the province of Ethiopia where it was discovered around AD. University of Washington York University ground seeds of the world blend of arabica coffee production coffee... Main variety of C. canephora, production and botany '' Arabia for over 1000 years and ground of! Of coffee, is supposed to have originated in southwestern Ethiopia robusta, the trees have a season are. This point, they are called “ cherry ” and are ready for picking who covers Middle East foreign. Highest prices then resemble, and Jamaica 2002 issue of Scientific American: arabica takes about seven to... The genetic integrity of wild coffee because it exposes wild genotypes to cultivars of! Where C. arabicaoriginated and may have been domesticated shrub species belonging to Rubiaceae... In axillary clusters as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low.... Ok. Watering: high water Requirements York University sunny days result in the world, Hemagglutinin and Food from... Found in Africa, 14 species in South-East Asia and Mauritius Food Poisoning from,.